What is turbocharger?

In its simplest form a turbocharger is an exhaust driven centrifugal compressor that feeds your engine with more air than it can normally ingest allowing a greater amount of power to be produced than the same engine normally aspirated. Since all internal combustion engines rely on oxygen to burn their fuel, feeding more air, or oxygen, by the use of a turbocharger, more power can be produced. In most cases, power increases of 50-75% will be achieved with turbo charging.

Normally, the exhaust gas by product of the combustion process is expelled from the engine out into the atmosphere. A turbocharger utilizes this normally wasted gas as an energy source to drive the turbine wheel before being returned to the exhaust system. The turbine wheel has a shaft that connects it directly to the compressor wheel located on the opposite end of the turbocharger. This compressor wheel draws in fresh air from the air filter assembly, then compresses it to provide a force fed charge of air for your engine utilize in combustion.

The turbocharger spins at an extremely high speed, some models approach 160,000 revolutions per minute to provide enough air flow to feed a hungry engine. The turbo relies on oil suspended bearings to allow its shaft to rotate. The speed at which the turbo turns, combined with the heat generated by the exhaust system equates to a very sophisticated part made with very specialized materials, machined and manufactured to strict tolerances. A turbocharger rebuilding process is very labor intensive and requires specialized equipment and strong experience, we recommend always sending your turbocharger to a professional for repairs any needed.

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How Turbocharger works?

Turbo in the form of a snail is a shaft with propeller-like fins on both ends. Exhaust gases return the turbine. The rotating compressor with the other end turbine accelerates, the flow of air entering the engine and allows more air to enter.

The turbocharger is basically an air pump. After “combustion-power”, the hot exhaust gases leaving the engine are directed to the turbocharger’s turbine impeller and turn it. The turbine impeller is connected to the compressor impeller via a shaft. As long as the turbine impeller rotates, the compressor impeller rotates as well. During the rotation of the compressor ram, fresh air is drawn in and compressed before the motor is sent to the combustion cell via the manifold-cooler.

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What are the symptoms of turbocharger failure?

There are many symptoms of turbocharger failures. Some of them can be understood physically and visually, some others can be determined by the experts in detail. The main fault indication is as follows.

– Fault lamp on (in new vehicles),

– The vehicle drops, fuel consumption increases,

– Turbo sound abnormal – Turbo malfunction sound (such as a chirp-siren) (distinctive-whistle sound pleasant to normal ear)

– Engine oil is relieved,

– Turbo pressure falls,

– Extreme smoke (gray-blue) exits.

What are the causes of turbocharger malfunction?

Insufficient lubrication: Turbocharged vehicles should be careful not to lose oil. Due to the inadequate size of the oil, the shaft and bearings can rub, erode, space and make noise.

Poor quality oil: Always use the oil recommended by the manufacturer. For turbocharged engines it is important that the oil is synthetic. Poor quality oil loses its lubrication property at high temperature, viscosity is not suitable for turbo, it can not lubricate turbo bearings enough, turbo malfunctions.

Failure to perform oil change on time: Care should be taken to periodic maintenance times, when the engine oil is low or too late, the oil will disappear and cause a turbo malfunction.

Turbo Shaft – Spacing of bearings and bushes: Even if it does not originate from an accident, the shaft-bearing bushes may wear out and become empty due to the use of turbo. In this case, the turbo will make a buzzing sound. Such situations can be repaired by turbo overhaul.

Entrance of Solid Parts into the Turbo Air Inlet: Entrance of solid foreign particles (metal particles) into the air intake of the turbo causes very fast spinning blades to strike or break. Impact of foreign solid particles on the turbine fins on the exhaust side also disrupts the fins.

Extremely High Temperature Exhaust Gas: Excessive warming of the exhaust gas, overcompression of the engine, inadequate cooling of the turbo, disruption of the turbo mine’s beds, bending of the snail body and rubbing of the fins.

 

Things to be aware of when using a Turbocharged car.

Turbo is lubricated with engine oil, engine oil is pumped by oil pump to engine oil canals and turbocharged oil inlet channel. Starting the engine and stopping immediately after a few seconds, will damage the turbo, because the turbo starts to spin quickly, and if you stop the engine,  the engine oil has not yet lubricated the turbo. Moreover, if the engine is cold, the ability to lubrication of the cold engine is even less.

After a journey with medium and high speed driving, allow the engine to idle for 1-2 minutes so that the turbo slows down while lubrication is in progress. After you stop the engine, the turbo shaft continues to rotate rapidly, it takes some time to stop. If you stop the car and stop immediately, you will stop lubrication of the turbo when the turbo is spinning fast. In this case, the shaft and  bearings are worn out due to the oil-free operation of the turbocharger.

 

turbocharger

Does the turbocharger failure cause damage to the car?

Failure of the turbocharger reduces the combustion efficiency of the engine, the traction of the engine is decreased, fuel consumption increases. The turbo malfunction does not directly cause serious damage to the engine but it will have a negative effect on the piston-valve system, due to inadequate air supply ,it causes bad combustion and vibration.

A possible turbo malfunction will directly damage the exhaust system, increase exhaust emissions, increase the ratio of particulates and components in the exhaust gas, and damage the catalytic converter and the diesel particulate filter.